Gothic is the architecture of the pointed arch, the rib vault, the flying buttress, window tracery, pinnacles and spires.
Walls are reduced to a minimum by large arcades and there is an emphasis on verticality. Gothic was most commonly used in church architecture during this period, but also in collegiate architecture, notably at Oxford and Cambridge.
Gothic Revival / Neo-Gothic
The Gothic Revival was a conscious movement that began in England to revive Gothic forms, mostly in the second half of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century. The late-18th century examples were often domestic and highly decorative, as seen at Strawberry Hill, which made the style fashionable.
St Pancras Hotel and Chambers, London, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott
© Janet Hall / RIBA Library Photographs Collection
In the 19th century its main champion was Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin who, among others, took a much more scholarly approach to the revival of past styles. This ultimately led to an ambitious programme of Victorian church building, served by architects immersed in the style. The revival lasted until the 1870s, when other historical revivals emerged.
What to look for in a Gothic Revival / Neo-Gothic building
1. Pointed arches and or windows
2. Irregular appearance
3. Vertical emphasis
4. Variety of materials
5. Rich colours and decoration