First World War Memorials

Tributes to the Fallen

First World War Memorials in the RIBA Collections

To mark 100 years since the end of World War One, RIBApix presents a collection of images showing both built and unexecuted First World War Memorials from around the world.

The devastating and unimaginable number of casualties as well as the destruction of large areas of Europe, led to The Great War of 1914-1918 being known at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Thousands of families around the world were affected, with many communities losing a large portion of their young, male population. Hundreds of villages and towns across Europe were badly damaged or in some cases destroyed by the war. In addition to the many lives lost, World War One also resulted in millions of soldiers returning home with both physical and mental scars, forever impacted by their participation in the conflict.

The monumental impact of The Great War globally resulted in a major shift in how nations commemorated it. Huge numbers of memorials were built around the world, with over 100,000 in France alone. Many towns and villages constructed small memorials to the men their communities had lost. Thousands of memorial walls of honour were put up in factories, railway stations, schools and universities to commemorate participants from institutions. The Royal Institute of British Architects’ memorial is outside of the Jarvis Hall at its headquarters at 66 Portland Place, to commemorate ‘members, licentiates and students’ who lost their lives in the First World War. The majority of these were paid for by the communities and institutions themselves.

Beyond these smaller more community driven memorials, larger ones were also built, driven by governments and international organisations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) for example was set up to create memorials to soldiers from Great Britain and the wider commonwealth that had fought in the war, including the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The Cenotaph, London’s most prominent memorial built after the First World War, was designed by Edwin Lutyens, initially a temporary structure made of wood and plaster, built as Whitehall’s monument for the London Victory Parade on 19 July 1919. On the 30th July that year, the British War Cabinet decided that a permanent war memorial should replace the temporary one. The final completed version, built from Portland Stone by Holland & Hannen and Cubitts, was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the end of the First World War.

As well as the memorials constructed across the world, war cemeteries also represented a strong example of the way the First World War was commemorated. The Treaty of Versailles made all nations responsible for the maintenance of military graves within their countries. The countries of the soldiers interned there however, held control over the style and design of the cemeteries. Architecturally, most war memorials and war cemeteries built to commemorate the First World War were conservative in design, commonly following classical themes, attempting to provide a noble, enduring commemoration of the fallen.

To see additional images of war memorials from the First World War, Click here. To see images of war memorials from all conflicts, Click here.

Feature by Anthony Wilkinson.

 

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`RIBA105882Rolling Bridge, Paddington Basin, London: the bridge rolled up

 
RIBA2088Hillfield (House A), Whipsnade Zoo Estate, Whipsnade: the sun-catch

 
RIBA2093Fagus factory, Alfeld an der Leine, Lower Saxony


RIBA2187Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Hong Kong: first banking level reception area and atrium above

 
RIBA2478Battersea 'A' Power Station, London, by night

 
RIBA3066Designs for six circular badges showing birds


RIBA3067Designs for six circular badges showing flowers

 
RIBA3068Designs for six circular badges showing animals

 
RIBA3069Designs for six circular badges showing animals and flowers


RIBA3070Designs for six circular badges showing sea creatures and birds

 
RIBA3085Design for a beach house, California, for Rupert R. Ryan

 
RIBA3086Design for the river front of St Olaf House, Hay's Wharf, Tooley Street, Southwark, London


RIBA3091Design for the Odeon cinema, Leicester Square, London

 
RIBA3093Design for the interior of Fischer's Restaurant, New Bond Street, London

 
RIBA3316Unexecuted design for Frinton Hotel, Frinton-on-Sea, Essex


RIBA3318Marine Court, St Leonards on Sea, East Sussex

 
RIBA3716Ronan Point, Clever Road, West Ham, London, after building collapse

 
RIBA3717Central Market Building, Covent Garden, London


RIBA3718Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

 
RIBA3719John Ruskin

 
RIBA3720Frank Lloyd Wright


RIBA3721Owen Jones

 
RIBA3722Christ Church, Spitalfields, London, seen from Brushfield Street

 
RIBA3723St Stephen Walbrook, City of London


RIBA12953Plan of Nottingham Castle

 
RIBA64332Berkeley Library, Trinity College, Dublin: students relaxing on the raked concrete benches by the east front entrance

 
RIBA64334Berkeley Library, Trinity College, Dublin: the entrance hall


RIBA84028Plan of Nottingham Castle

 
RIBA84030View of Nottingham Castle with gabled houses and a church at the bottom of the hill

 
RIBA84031View of the north face of Nottingham Castle: elevation


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