First World War Memorials

Tributes to the Fallen

First World War Memorials in the RIBA Collections

To mark 100 years since the end of World War One, RIBApix presents a collection of images showing both built and unexecuted First World War Memorials from around the world.

The devastating and unimaginable number of casualties as well as the destruction of large areas of Europe, led to The Great War of 1914-1918 being known at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Thousands of families around the world were affected, with many communities losing a large portion of their young, male population. Hundreds of villages and towns across Europe were badly damaged or in some cases destroyed by the war. In addition to the many lives lost, World War One also resulted in millions of soldiers returning home with both physical and mental scars, forever impacted by their participation in the conflict.

The monumental impact of The Great War globally resulted in a major shift in how nations commemorated it. Huge numbers of memorials were built around the world, with over 100,000 in France alone. Many towns and villages constructed small memorials to the men their communities had lost. Thousands of memorial walls of honour were put up in factories, railway stations, schools and universities to commemorate participants from institutions. The Royal Institute of British Architects’ memorial is outside of the Jarvis Hall at its headquarters at 66 Portland Place, to commemorate ‘members, licentiates and students’ who lost their lives in the First World War. The majority of these were paid for by the communities and institutions themselves.

Beyond these smaller more community driven memorials, larger ones were also built, driven by governments and international organisations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) for example was set up to create memorials to soldiers from Great Britain and the wider commonwealth that had fought in the war, including the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The Cenotaph, London’s most prominent memorial built after the First World War, was designed by Edwin Lutyens, initially a temporary structure made of wood and plaster, built as Whitehall’s monument for the London Victory Parade on 19 July 1919. On the 30th July that year, the British War Cabinet decided that a permanent war memorial should replace the temporary one. The final completed version, built from Portland Stone by Holland & Hannen and Cubitts, was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the end of the First World War.

As well as the memorials constructed across the world, war cemeteries also represented a strong example of the way the First World War was commemorated. The Treaty of Versailles made all nations responsible for the maintenance of military graves within their countries. The countries of the soldiers interned there however, held control over the style and design of the cemeteries. Architecturally, most war memorials and war cemeteries built to commemorate the First World War were conservative in design, commonly following classical themes, attempting to provide a noble, enduring commemoration of the fallen.

To see additional images of war memorials from the First World War, Click here. To see images of war memorials from all conflicts, Click here.

Feature by Anthony Wilkinson.

 

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RIBA3724Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire: the south (entrance) front

 
RIBA3725St Stephen Walbrook, City of London: distant view of the steeple

 
RIBA3726Royal Institute of British Architects, 66 Portland Place, London: the library


RIBA372737 Bidston Road, Oxton, Birkenhead, Merseyside: the dining room

 
RIBA3728Tricorn Shopping Centre, Portsmouth, Hampshire: the vehicle ramp at the west corner of site

 
RIBA3729Tricorn Shopping Centre, Portsmouth, Hampshire: the front along Market Way


RIBA3734Seagram Building, 375 Park Avenue, New York

 
RIBA3735World Trade Center, New York

 
RIBA3736House of the Future, Daily Mail Ideal Home Exhibition, Olympia, London: the sitting room


RIBA3737Design for the sitting room of penthouse flat, 26 Broadwalk House, 51 Hyde Park Gate, London

 
RIBA3738Odeon cinema, Fortis Green Road, Muswell Hill, London: the ticket booth

 
RIBA3740House of the Future, Daily Mail Ideal Home Exhibition, Olympia, London: the kitchen


RIBA3741Architect's home, Rungsted Kyst

 
RIBA3742Wildwood, Princes Drive, Oxshott, Surrey: the living room and hall

 
RIBA3743Wildwood, Princes Drive, Oxshott, Surrey: the kitchen


RIBA37441 Royal Crescent, Bath

 
RIBA3745Chrysler Building, 405 Lexington Avenue, New York: close-up of the steel-clad pinnacle

 
RIBA3746Forte's Crescent Restaurant, Festival of Britain, Festival Pleasure Gardens, Battersea, London


RIBA3747Dell Restaurant, Hyde Park, London

 
RIBA3749Casa del Fascio, Piazza del Popolo, Como

 
RIBA3750Garden seat, Rousham


RIBA3751Thomas Farnolls Pritchard

 
RIBA3753Chiswick House, London: detail of the Corinthian columns

 
RIBA3754Patrick Nuttgens


RIBA3755Stephen Rowland Pierce

 
RIBA3756Sir Donald Gibson

 
RIBA3757Theatre of Bacchus, Athens, with James 'Athenian' Stuart shown sketching in the foreground


RIBA3758Patio de los Leones (Court of the Lions), Alhambra, Granada

 
RIBA3759Koutoubia Mosque, Marrakesh

 
RIBA3760Mosque and shrine of Moulay Idris II, Fez


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