First World War Memorials

Tributes to the Fallen

First World War Memorials in the RIBA Collections

To mark 100 years since the end of World War One, RIBApix presents a collection of images showing both built and unexecuted First World War Memorials from around the world.

The devastating and unimaginable number of casualties as well as the destruction of large areas of Europe, led to The Great War of 1914-1918 being known at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Thousands of families around the world were affected, with many communities losing a large portion of their young, male population. Hundreds of villages and towns across Europe were badly damaged or in some cases destroyed by the war. In addition to the many lives lost, World War One also resulted in millions of soldiers returning home with both physical and mental scars, forever impacted by their participation in the conflict.

The monumental impact of The Great War globally resulted in a major shift in how nations commemorated it. Huge numbers of memorials were built around the world, with over 100,000 in France alone. Many towns and villages constructed small memorials to the men their communities had lost. Thousands of memorial walls of honour were put up in factories, railway stations, schools and universities to commemorate participants from institutions. The Royal Institute of British Architects’ memorial is outside of the Jarvis Hall at its headquarters at 66 Portland Place, to commemorate ‘members, licentiates and students’ who lost their lives in the First World War. The majority of these were paid for by the communities and institutions themselves.

Beyond these smaller more community driven memorials, larger ones were also built, driven by governments and international organisations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) for example was set up to create memorials to soldiers from Great Britain and the wider commonwealth that had fought in the war, including the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The Cenotaph, London’s most prominent memorial built after the First World War, was designed by Edwin Lutyens, initially a temporary structure made of wood and plaster, built as Whitehall’s monument for the London Victory Parade on 19 July 1919. On the 30th July that year, the British War Cabinet decided that a permanent war memorial should replace the temporary one. The final completed version, built from Portland Stone by Holland & Hannen and Cubitts, was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the end of the First World War.

As well as the memorials constructed across the world, war cemeteries also represented a strong example of the way the First World War was commemorated. The Treaty of Versailles made all nations responsible for the maintenance of military graves within their countries. The countries of the soldiers interned there however, held control over the style and design of the cemeteries. Architecturally, most war memorials and war cemeteries built to commemorate the First World War were conservative in design, commonly following classical themes, attempting to provide a noble, enduring commemoration of the fallen.

To see additional images of war memorials from the First World War, Click here. To see images of war memorials from all conflicts, Click here.

Feature by Anthony Wilkinson.

 

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105521 items
RIBA3761Tiles and decorative plasterwork, Alhambra, Granada

 
RIBA3762Great Mosque (Mezquita), Cordoba: the dome over the bay in front of the Mihrab

 
RIBA3763Santa Maria la Blanca, Toledo: the arcades


RIBA3764Alhambra, Granada: Sala de Dos Hermanas (Hall of the Two Sisters) looking towards the Mirador de la Daraxa

 
RIBA3765James Stirling

 
RIBA3767Hatfield Technical College, Hertfordshire: the assembly hall and dining block with sculptural panel by Trevor Tennant based on the college plan


RIBA3769Hatfield Technical College, Hertfordshire, with relief sculpture by Barbara Hepworth

 
RIBA3770Hatfield Technical College, Hertfordshire

 
RIBA3771Alexandra Road Estate, Camden, London


RIBA3772Cathedral of Notre Dame, Ile de la Cite, Paris

 
RIBA3773Palladian Bridge, Stowe, Buckinghamshire

 
RIBA3774Salisbury Cathedral: the spire seen from the north-west


RIBA3775Dulwich Picture Gallery and Mausoleum, London

 
RIBA3776Queen's House, Greenwich, London: the south front

 
RIBA3777York Minster: the west front


RIBA3778Lincoln Cathedral: the nave

 
RIBA3779Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, seen from the northwest

 
RIBA3780Building of the General Staff, St Petersburg, seen from Palace Square


RIBA3781Espaces d'Abraxas housing, Marne-la-Vallee

 
RIBA3782Pompidou Centre (Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges-Pompidou), Paris

 
RIBA3783M2 building, Tokyo


RIBA3784Silver Pavilion (Ginkakuji), Ginkakuji Temple, Kyoto

 
RIBA3785Main temple (Hondo), Ginkakuji Temple, Kyoto

 
RIBA3786South Main Gate (Nandaimon), Todaiji Temple, Nara


RIBA3787Amida Hall (or Phoenix Hall), Byodo-in Temple, Uji

 
RIBA3788Chartres Cathedral: the north rose window

 
RIBA3789Ely Cathedral: the choir and high altar


RIBA3790Cathedral of Notre Dame, Reims: statues surrounding doorways of west portal

 
RIBA3792Royal Courts of Justice, Strand, London, seen from the south-west

 
RIBA3793Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens


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