First World War Memorials

Tributes to the Fallen

First World War Memorials in the RIBA Collections

To mark 100 years since the end of World War One, RIBApix presents a collection of images showing both built and unexecuted First World War Memorials from around the world.

The devastating and unimaginable number of casualties as well as the destruction of large areas of Europe, led to The Great War of 1914-1918 being known at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Thousands of families around the world were affected, with many communities losing a large portion of their young, male population. Hundreds of villages and towns across Europe were badly damaged or in some cases destroyed by the war. In addition to the many lives lost, World War One also resulted in millions of soldiers returning home with both physical and mental scars, forever impacted by their participation in the conflict.

The monumental impact of The Great War globally resulted in a major shift in how nations commemorated it. Huge numbers of memorials were built around the world, with over 100,000 in France alone. Many towns and villages constructed small memorials to the men their communities had lost. Thousands of memorial walls of honour were put up in factories, railway stations, schools and universities to commemorate participants from institutions. The Royal Institute of British Architects’ memorial is outside of the Jarvis Hall at its headquarters at 66 Portland Place, to commemorate ‘members, licentiates and students’ who lost their lives in the First World War. The majority of these were paid for by the communities and institutions themselves.

Beyond these smaller more community driven memorials, larger ones were also built, driven by governments and international organisations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) for example was set up to create memorials to soldiers from Great Britain and the wider commonwealth that had fought in the war, including the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The Cenotaph, London’s most prominent memorial built after the First World War, was designed by Edwin Lutyens, initially a temporary structure made of wood and plaster, built as Whitehall’s monument for the London Victory Parade on 19 July 1919. On the 30th July that year, the British War Cabinet decided that a permanent war memorial should replace the temporary one. The final completed version, built from Portland Stone by Holland & Hannen and Cubitts, was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the end of the First World War.

As well as the memorials constructed across the world, war cemeteries also represented a strong example of the way the First World War was commemorated. The Treaty of Versailles made all nations responsible for the maintenance of military graves within their countries. The countries of the soldiers interned there however, held control over the style and design of the cemeteries. Architecturally, most war memorials and war cemeteries built to commemorate the First World War were conservative in design, commonly following classical themes, attempting to provide a noble, enduring commemoration of the fallen.

To see additional images of war memorials from the First World War, Click here. To see images of war memorials from all conflicts, Click here.

Feature by Anthony Wilkinson.

 

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RIBA3829Shopping centre, Pepys Estate, Deptford, London

 
RIBA3830Children's playground, Pepys Estate, Deptford, London

 
RIBA3832Rievaulx Abbey, North Yorkshire: the nave of the church


RIBA3833Head office for insurance firm Willis Faber and Dumas Limited, Ipswich, Suffolk

 
RIBA3834Royal English Opera House, now the Palace Theatre, Cambridge Circus, London

 
RIBA3835City Bank, 45-47 Ludgate Hill, City of London


RIBA3838Model of the final revised design for the National Gallery Extension, Hampton site, Trafalgar Square, London

 
RIBA3839Model of the final revised design for the National Gallery Extension, Hampton site, Trafalgar Square, London

 
RIBA3840View of Potsdam


RIBA3841Lincoln Cathedral: the Angel Choir

 
RIBA3843St Paul's Cathedral, City of London, seen from the steeple of St Martin Ludgate

 
RIBA3844Selfridges department store, Bull Ring, Birmingham: the store juxtaposed with the tower of St Martin's Church


RIBA3845Pompidou Centre (Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges-Pompidou), Paris

 
RIBA3846W D and H O Wills tobacco factory, Hartcliffe, Bristol

 
RIBA3847Winter House, 81 Swain's Lane, Highgate, London


RIBA3848Richard J Daley Center, formerly the Civic Center, Chicago: steel column oxydidizing

 
RIBA3849Richard J Daley Center, formerly the Civic Center, Chicago: steel column oxydidizing

 
RIBA3850Castle Howard, North Yorkshire: the south front seen from the south-east


RIBA3851German Pavilion, Barcelona

 
RIBA3852Dartmoor

 
RIBA3853Housing nearing completion at the Aylesbury Estate, Walworth, Southwark, London


RIBA3854W D and H O Wills tobacco factory, Hartcliffe, Bristol: head office

 
RIBA3855Campanile of San Marco, Venice

 
RIBA3857Duomo and campanile (Leaning Tower), Campo dei Miracoli, Pisa, seen from the south-west


RIBA3861San Marco and Campanile, Venice

 
RIBA3862Tribune Tower, Chicago

 
RIBA3863Empire State Building, 350 5th Avenue, New York


RIBA3865Pioneer Health Centre, St Mary's Road, Peckham, London: row of shower units that lead to the swimming pool

 
RIBA3867Ralph Erskine

 
RIBA3868Borgafjall Ski Hotel: multi-level public spaces


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