First World War Memorials

Tributes to the Fallen

First World War Memorials in the RIBA Collections

To mark 100 years since the end of World War One, RIBApix presents a collection of images showing both built and unexecuted First World War Memorials from around the world.

The devastating and unimaginable number of casualties as well as the destruction of large areas of Europe, led to The Great War of 1914-1918 being known at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Thousands of families around the world were affected, with many communities losing a large portion of their young, male population. Hundreds of villages and towns across Europe were badly damaged or in some cases destroyed by the war. In addition to the many lives lost, World War One also resulted in millions of soldiers returning home with both physical and mental scars, forever impacted by their participation in the conflict.

The monumental impact of The Great War globally resulted in a major shift in how nations commemorated it. Huge numbers of memorials were built around the world, with over 100,000 in France alone. Many towns and villages constructed small memorials to the men their communities had lost. Thousands of memorial walls of honour were put up in factories, railway stations, schools and universities to commemorate participants from institutions. The Royal Institute of British Architects’ memorial is outside of the Jarvis Hall at its headquarters at 66 Portland Place, to commemorate ‘members, licentiates and students’ who lost their lives in the First World War. The majority of these were paid for by the communities and institutions themselves.

Beyond these smaller more community driven memorials, larger ones were also built, driven by governments and international organisations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) for example was set up to create memorials to soldiers from Great Britain and the wider commonwealth that had fought in the war, including the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The Cenotaph, London’s most prominent memorial built after the First World War, was designed by Edwin Lutyens, initially a temporary structure made of wood and plaster, built as Whitehall’s monument for the London Victory Parade on 19 July 1919. On the 30th July that year, the British War Cabinet decided that a permanent war memorial should replace the temporary one. The final completed version, built from Portland Stone by Holland & Hannen and Cubitts, was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the end of the First World War.

As well as the memorials constructed across the world, war cemeteries also represented a strong example of the way the First World War was commemorated. The Treaty of Versailles made all nations responsible for the maintenance of military graves within their countries. The countries of the soldiers interned there however, held control over the style and design of the cemeteries. Architecturally, most war memorials and war cemeteries built to commemorate the First World War were conservative in design, commonly following classical themes, attempting to provide a noble, enduring commemoration of the fallen.

To see additional images of war memorials from the First World War, Click here. To see images of war memorials from all conflicts, Click here.

Feature by Anthony Wilkinson.

 

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108584 items
RIBA3943Frei Otto

 
RIBA3944West German Pavilion, Expo '67, Montreal, by night

 
RIBA3945Design for an organ case, Burton-upon-Trent


RIBA3948Drawings from a sketchbook showing the gatehouse of Cockermouth Castle, Cumbria, and part-plan of Norris Castle, East Cowes, Isle of White

 
RIBA3949Design for a cottage ornee

 
RIBA3950Design for the interior decoration of a house


RIBA3951Design for the Indian Bridge at Sezincote, Moreton-in-Marsh

 
RIBA3953Design for an octagonal cottage

 
RIBA3955Hungerford Market, London: perpective view of the galleries, showing a flower-seller


RIBA3957Design for the west elevation of a cathedral

 
RIBA3960Design for Rookwood Cemetery Railway Station, Sydney, Australia

 
RIBA3962Design for a country villa


RIBA3963Design for Stanley Hall, Shropshire

 
RIBA3965Design for a tower for Selfridge's department store, Oxford Street, London

 
RIBA3966Design for the saloon ceiling, Longleat House, Wiltshire, for the Marquis of Bath


RIBA3970Interior of an Egyptian temple

 
RIBA3972Designs for the redecoration of the chapel and addition of an adjoining monument room, Wynyard Park, County Durham, for the 6th Marquis of Londonderry: view of the chapel looking south-east

 
RIBA3973Design for Mason's Yard Electricity Generating Station, Duke Street, London for St. James & Pall Mall Electric Lighting Company


RIBA3974Persective of the chimney at Grove Road Power Station, Lodge Road, St John's Wood, London for the Central Electricity Supply Company

 
RIBA3975Blickling Hall, Norfolk: design for a fireplace in the library

 
RIBA3976View through an archway, Venice


RIBA3977Cathedral of Notre Dame, Reims: south portal of west front

 
RIBA3978Amphitheatre at Pola (Pula): view from the west

 
RIBA3979Competition design for the Houses of Parliament, Palace of Westminster, London, showing Westminster Hall on the left


RIBA3980Design for the Library and Scientific Institution, Wellington Street, Islington, London

 
RIBA3981Designs for Moreby Hall, North Yorkshire, for Henry Preston, Esq.: perpsective of entrance front

 
RIBA3982Design for the conservatory, Mamhead Park, Mamhead, Devon


RIBA3983Southwark Bridge, London: detail of pier and spandrels from the south-west

 
RIBA3984Design for a room in the Jacobean style, Poles, near Thundridge, Hertfordshire

 
RIBA3985Design for the Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London: detail of gable to wings, front elevation


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