First World War Memorials

Tributes to the Fallen

First World War Memorials in the RIBA Collections

To mark 100 years since the end of World War One, RIBApix presents a collection of images showing both built and unexecuted First World War Memorials from around the world.

The devastating and unimaginable number of casualties as well as the destruction of large areas of Europe, led to The Great War of 1914-1918 being known at the time as “the war to end all wars”. Thousands of families around the world were affected, with many communities losing a large portion of their young, male population. Hundreds of villages and towns across Europe were badly damaged or in some cases destroyed by the war. In addition to the many lives lost, World War One also resulted in millions of soldiers returning home with both physical and mental scars, forever impacted by their participation in the conflict.

The monumental impact of The Great War globally resulted in a major shift in how nations commemorated it. Huge numbers of memorials were built around the world, with over 100,000 in France alone. Many towns and villages constructed small memorials to the men their communities had lost. Thousands of memorial walls of honour were put up in factories, railway stations, schools and universities to commemorate participants from institutions. The Royal Institute of British Architects’ memorial is outside of the Jarvis Hall at its headquarters at 66 Portland Place, to commemorate ‘members, licentiates and students’ who lost their lives in the First World War. The majority of these were paid for by the communities and institutions themselves.

Beyond these smaller more community driven memorials, larger ones were also built, driven by governments and international organisations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission) for example was set up to create memorials to soldiers from Great Britain and the wider commonwealth that had fought in the war, including the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, and the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. The Cenotaph, London’s most prominent memorial built after the First World War, was designed by Edwin Lutyens, initially a temporary structure made of wood and plaster, built as Whitehall’s monument for the London Victory Parade on 19 July 1919. On the 30th July that year, the British War Cabinet decided that a permanent war memorial should replace the temporary one. The final completed version, built from Portland Stone by Holland & Hannen and Cubitts, was unveiled by King George V on 11 November 1920, the second anniversary of the end of the First World War.

As well as the memorials constructed across the world, war cemeteries also represented a strong example of the way the First World War was commemorated. The Treaty of Versailles made all nations responsible for the maintenance of military graves within their countries. The countries of the soldiers interned there however, held control over the style and design of the cemeteries. Architecturally, most war memorials and war cemeteries built to commemorate the First World War were conservative in design, commonly following classical themes, attempting to provide a noble, enduring commemoration of the fallen.

To see additional images of war memorials from the First World War, Click here. To see images of war memorials from all conflicts, Click here.

Feature by Anthony Wilkinson.


57 items
RIBA6074Cenotaph, Whitehall, London

RIBA7401All-India War Memorial, New Delhi

RIBA8207Main street and war memorial, Burford

RIBA12709Design for a war memorial cross, Petworth

RIBA13029Design for the All-India War Memorial Arch, New Delhi

RIBA20229Design for a war memorial chapel, Oldham Parish Church, Oldham: plan and elevation

RIBA20492Design for a war memorial, Leeds

RIBA21978Design for a proposed war memorial, Salisbury, Wiltshire: aerial perspective taken 350 feet above the Poultry Cross with the River Avon seen below

RIBA22013Design for a war memorial to the London Troops outside the Royal Exchange, London

RIBA29973Design for Manchester war memorial: sketched elevations, perspectives and plans

RIBA31143Design for the Cenotaph, Whitehall, London, surmounted by an urn: sketched elevations and perspective

RIBA31239Design for the Australian National War Memorial, Villers-Bretonneux Military Cemetery: sketched perspective as executed

RIBA36448Design for carvings on a war memorial (World War One): sketched elevation showing a sinking steamship in the background with a lifeboat (or fishing boat) full of people attempting to rescue further survivors from the sea

RIBA39606Design for Southampton war memorial, Southampton: sketched perspective

RIBA40004Memorial to the Missing of the Battle of the Somme, Thiepval

RIBA40019British Cemetery and New Zealand Soldiers Memorial, Grevillers

RIBA40050Memorial to the Missing and Cemetery, Faubourg d'Amiens, Arras: perspective view along a colonnade

RIBA40267Douaumont ossuary near Verdun, Lorraine

RIBA56604Memorial to the fallen soldiers, Simmeringer Hauptstrasse, Vienna

RIBA58050British Medical Association, Tavistock Square, Bloomsbury, London: the Court of Honour seen from the World War I Memorial Gates with the World War II memorial in the background

RIBA65031Competition design for the Shrine of Remembrance (the National War Memorial of Victoria), Melbourne: interior perspective of inner shrine

RIBA65033Competition design for the Shrine of Remembrance (the National War Memorial of Victoria), Melbourne: perspective from city approach

RIBA65035Competition design for the Shrine of Remembrance (the National War Memorial of Victoria), Melbourne: bird's-eye view from the north

RIBA70367A record sketch of the unexecuted design for the Memorial to the Missing at St Quentin, Nord

RIBA71514Doulton & Sons Offices & Showrooms, Albert Embankment, London: the Memorial Hall

RIBA72940London Fire Brigade headquarters, Lambeth: the war memorial by Gilbert Bayes

RIBA92010Designs for the Preston Cenotaph and War Memorial, Market Square, Preston, Lancashire: half front elevation and half side elevation

RIBA94020Design for the Menin Gate, Ypres, for the Imperial War Graves Commission: perspective

RIBA94924Competition design for the Liverpool Cenotaph, St George's Plateau, Liverpool: elevations

RIBA97164Competition design for memorial to the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, York Minster: elevation, part-section and details