St Pancras Station

Celebrating 150 years with images from the RIBA Collections

When the 10.05 pm Leeds – St Pancras overnight mail train arrived into London at 4.20 am on 1 October 1868 it went largely unnoticed but nevertheless marked the opening of the capital’s latest but still unfinished railway terminus: St Pancras station. There was no inaugural opening ceremony for the station described by the Illustrated London News (3 October 1868) as “the largest in the world” and which was not completed until the following spring as recorded in this engraving from the Building News.

It was built by the Midland Railway (MR) to fulfil its ambitions of having its own route into London to carry increasing numbers of passengers as well as coal, iron and beer from Burton-on-Trent’s breweries. The Midland’s extension south from Bedford meant that it no longer had to pay for “running powers” to use the London and North Western Railway or Great Northern Railway’s routes into Euston or King’s Cross. This then presented an opportunity for the MR to assert its supremacy over its London-based rivals by building the most magnificent of London’s termini along with George Gilbert Scott’s Gothic Revival Midland Grand Hotel which was only fully completed in 1876.

The consulting civil engineer for the MR’s line southwards from Bedford was William Henry Barlow. Like the approach to neighbouring King’s Cross station the tracks had to cross Regent’s Canal but Barlow chose to bridge over rather than tunnel under the canal hence giving St Pancras its elevated position. This in turn provided a large basement area under the station which rather than filling in Barlow decided to exploit by supporting the station on cast iron girders and 720 columns in the form of a grid based on the dimensions of Burton brewery warehouses, i.e. the length of a beer barrel meaning that the train loads of beer could be easily stored at St Pancras.

“Built on beer” above this undercroft is the station and its magnificent, single span, slightly pointed arched train shed designed by Barlow assisted by Rowland Mason Ordish. The roof of the undercroft also serves as the cross-ties for the train shed constructed from 25 ribs dramatically springing from platform level. At 689 feet long, 240’ wide and 100’ high it was in 1868 the largest single-span building in the world.

In 1923 the MR was absorbed into the London Midland & Scottish Railway and with Euston becoming their principal London terminus for trains for the north leaning to a gradual decline of St Pancras and closure of the Midland Grand Hotel in 1935 which was converted into offices. In 1949 a concerned John Betjeman wrote, “I have no doubt that British Railways will do away with St Pancras altogether. It is too beautiful and romantic to survive. It is not of this age.” Despite threats of demolition and conversion both station and hotel survived becoming Grade 1 listed in 1967 although with no realistic solution as how best to utilize them, not least the hotel. Perhaps, ironically, the destruction of Euston station in the early 1960s helped galvanise the campaign to save St Pancras.

150 years on St Pancras, now known as St Pancras International has now been restored and transformed into Britain’s major international rail terminal for High Speed 1 to the Channel Tunnel and is a “destination station” in its own right with its future now safely assured.

Feature by Jonathan Makepeace.. 

 

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RIBA125665(left) Elevation of part of an entrance screen with half-elevation of square-headed entrance with semi-circular element over, half-elevation of plain arched opening and, below, a rusticated dormer window; (right) half-elevation of an arched entrance with giant keystone, rusticated Doric columns, balustrade above, and, below, a part-plan

 
RIBA125666(left) Half-elevation of an arched entrance with rusticated piers and narrow facetted voussoirs and broken triangular pediment; (right) half-elevation of an entrance and profile of the same at right

 
RIBA125667(left) Half-elevation of an arched, rusticated gateway of an extremely elaborate design with heavy curved and broken pediment with a crouching lion and a seated female figure holding a cornucopia; (right) half-elevation of an arched gateway with facetted rustication with above a shallow broken pediment within which is a rusticated dormer or tablet with a broken curved pediment above that


RIBA125668St Etienne-du-Mont, Paris: east side doorway to the rood screen with alternative grille designs to right and left

 
RIBA125669St Etienne-du-Mont, Paris: west side doorway to the rood screen with alternative grille designs to right and left

 
RIBA125670St Etienne-du-Mont, Paris: section of side doorway design to the rood screen as seen in RIBA125669, with plan of left-hand side of doorway


RIBA125671Elevation of an arched entrance gateway with niches in the piers at either side, with a tablet above centre with a triangular pediment and, at either side above the arch, reversed segmental pediments with reclining figures

 
RIBA125672Two half-designs for cartouches with strapwork scrolls, foliage etc.

 
RIBA125673Elevation of an arched entrance gateway with a complicated decorative scheme


RIBA125674Elevation of a city (?) gateway with a large arched central entrance and very narrow doors either side with very elongated voussoirs above them and a triangular pediment

 
RIBA125675Elevation of an arched gateway with a relatively simple lower part, a broken segmental pediment surmounted by military trophies and framing an elaborate cartouche flanked by two female supporters

 
RIBA125676Three half-design cartouches


RIBA125677Elevation of an arched entrance with alternative designs for certain elements to left and right

 
RIBA125678Half-design for a cartouche

 
RIBA125679Elevation of the Porte Saint-Antoine, Paris


RIBA125680Three half-elevations of designs for entrances

 
RIBA125681Elevation of an arched entrance plainly rusticated, with triangular pediment surmounted by flaming grenades and a blank shield in the pediment

 
RIBA125682Elevation of the doorway of the Pavillon Conti at the Chateau of Montceaux


RIBA125683Two half-elevations of rusticated, arched entrances

 
RIBA125684Two half-elevations of rusticated, arched entrances, one with curved pediment and the other with triangular pediment

 
RIBA125685Elevation of an arched entrance supported on piers having a keystone with lion mask, broken segmental pediment with blank cartouche and surmounted by a triangular pediment


RIBA125686Drawing of Flora in a garden with architectural details in the background

 
RIBA125687Elevation of a window or possibly an opening in an entrance screen, possibly for the Chateau de Montceaux

 
RIBA125688Two half-elevations for doorways